Volume 9, Issue 18 (12-2019)                   2019, 9(18): 36-51 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Rashidi N, Salehi H, Safavi Homami S. Relationship between Legibility and Speed of Handwriting with Underlying Perceptual-Motor Functions in Persian Language Students. Research in Sport Management and Motor Behavior. 2019; 9 (18) :36-51
URL: http://jrsm.khu.ac.ir/article-1-2944-en.html
Abstract:   (2791 Views)
The purpose of this inquiry was to examine the interrelations among handwriting legibility and speed, and underlying perceptual-motor skills in Persian language students. Seventy students (26 male, 44 female; 10.21 ± 1.02 yr; 30 poor and 40 good control hand writers) were assessed during a copying task. The children completed the visual-motor control (VMC), upper-limb speed and dexterity (ULSD), ‎ and upper-limb coordination (ULC) ‎ subtests of the Bruininks–Oseretsky test of motor proficiency (BOT). The poor group scored significantly lower on handwriting legibility and speed in comparison with classroom controls in the copying task. Correlation coefficients between perceptual-motor function scores with handwriting legibility, and with handwriting speed varied from -0.11 to 0.40, and 0.17 to 0.39 respectively. Results showed that both legibility and speed predicted differences between students classified as “poor” and “good” hand writers. Results also showed that in the poor hand writers group, age, gender, BOT-ULC, and BOT-VMC were found to be significant predictors of legibility of handwriting, whereas gender and BOT-ULC were shown to be significant predictors of handwriting speed. The findings suggest that distinct perceptual-motor components may underlie writing during copying. Poor quality of handwriting of children seems to be particularly related to some sort of deficiency and dysfunction in perceptual-motor skills. Future studies should determine the possible benefit of interventions including stimulant in perceptual-motor functioning and handwriting performance, to enhance performance in these areas.
Full-Text [PDF 1087 kb]   (620 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: motor behavior
Received: 2015/05/12 | Accepted: 2015/11/30 | Published: 2020/02/8

1. Graham S, Weintraub N. A review of handwriting research: Progress and prospects from 1980 to 1994. Educational Psychology Review. 1996;8(1):7-87. [DOI:10.1007/BF01761831]
2. Laszlo JI, Bairstow PJ. Handwriting: Difficulties and possible solutions. School Psychology International. 1984;5(4):207-13. [DOI:10.1177/0143034384054004]
3. Hamstra-Bletz L, Blote AW. A longitudinal study on dysgraphic handwriting in primary school. Journal of Educational Psychology. 1993;26:689-99. [DOI:10.1177/002221949302601007]
4. Karlsdottir R, Stefansson T. Problems in developing functional handwriting. Perceptual & Motor Skills. 2002;94:623-62. [DOI:10.2466/pms.2002.94.2.623]
5. Hosseinaee A, Ahmad A, Azam N. Prevalence of reading and writing disabilities among primary school students. Developmental Psychology: Iranian Psychologists. 1390/2011;7(28):353-63 (In Persian).
6. Gregg N, Mather N. School is fun at recess: Informal analysis of written language for students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities. 2002;35:7-22. [DOI:10.1177/002221940203500102]
7. Feder KP, Majnemer A. Handwriting development, competency, and intervention. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 2007;49(4):312-7. [DOI:10.1111/j.1469-8749.2007.00312.x]
8. World Health Organization. International checklist of functioning, disability and health: ICF (Version 2.1a). 2002. Geneva, Switzerland: Author.
9. Sovik N, Arntzen O, Karlsdottir R. Relations between writing speed and some other parameters in handwriting. Journal of Human Movement Studies. 1993;25(3):133-50.
10. Graham S. The relationship between handwriting style and speed and legibility. The Journal of Educational Research. 1998;91:290-7. [DOI:10.1080/00220679809597556]
11. Graham S, Weintraub N, Berninger V, Schafer W. Development of handwriting speed and legibility in Grades 1-9. The Journal of Educational Research. 1998;92(1):42-52. [DOI:10.1080/00220679809597574]
12. Howe TH, Roston KL, Sheu CF, Hinojosa J. Assessing handwriting intervention effectiveness in elementary school students: a two-group controlled study. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 2013 Jan;67(1):19-26. [DOI:10.5014/ajot.2013.005470]
13. Taras H, Brennan J, Gilbert A, Eck Reed H. Effectiveness of Occupational Therapy Strategies for Teaching Handwriting Skills to Kindergarten Children. Journal of Occupational Therapy, Schools, & Early Intervention. 2011;4(3-4):236-46. [DOI:10.1080/19411243.2011.629554]
14. Parush S, Lifshitz N, Yochman A, Weintraub N. Relationships between handwriting components and underlying perceptual-motor functions among students during copying and dictation tasks.. OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health. 2010;30(1):39-48. [DOI:10.3928/15394492-20091214-06]
15. Volman MJM, van Schendel BM, Jongmans MJ. Handwriting difficulties in primary school children: A search for underlying mechanisms. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 2006;60(4):451-60. [DOI:10.5014/ajot.60.4.451]
16. Kaiser M-L, Albaret J-M, Doudin P-A. Relationship between visual-motor integration, eye-hand coordination, and quality of handwriting. Journal of Occupational Therapy, Schools, & Early Intervention. 2009;2(2):87-95. [DOI:10.1080/19411240903146228]
17. Klein S, Guiltner V, Sollereder P, Cui Y. Relationships between fine-motor, visual-motor, and visual perception scores and handwriting legibility and speed. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics. 2011;31(1):103-14. [DOI:10.3109/01942638.2010.541753]
18. Berninger VW, Swanson HL. Modifying Hayes and Flower's model of skilled writing to explain beginning and developing writing. Advances in Cognition and Educational Practice. 1994;2:57-81.
19. Tseng MH, Chow SM. Perceptual-motor function of school-age children with slow handwriting speed. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 2000;54(1):83-8. [DOI:10.5014/ajot.54.1.83]
20. Feder KP, Majnemer A, Bourbonnais D, Platt R, Blayney M, Synnes A. Handwriting performance in preterm children compared with term peers at age 6 to 7 years. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 2005;47(3):163-70. [DOI:10.1017/S0012162205000307]
21. Graham S, Boyer-Shick K, Tippets E. The validity of the handwriting scale from the test of written language. Journal of Educational Research. 1989;82:166-71. [DOI:10.1080/00220671.1989.10885886]
22. Rubin N, Henderson SE. Two sides of the same coin: Variations in teaching methods and failure to learn to write. British Journal of Special Education. 1982;9:17-24. [DOI:10.1111/j.1467-8578.1982.tb00576.x]
23. Tseng MH, Murray EA. Differences in perceptual-motor measures in children with good and poor handwriting. Occupational Therapy Journal of Research. 1994;14(1):19-36. [DOI:10.1177/153944929401400102]
24. Li-Tsang CW, Au RK, Chan MH, Chan LW, Lau GM, Lo T, et al. Handwriting characteristics among secondary students with and without physical disabilities: A study with a computerized tool. Research in Developmental Disabilities. 2011;32(1):207-16. [DOI:10.1016/j.ridd.2010.09.015]
25. Alibakhshi SZ, Aghayousefi AR, Zare H, Behzadipour S. Efficacy of self-regulated strategy development on writing performance of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Applied Psychology. 2011/1390;5(2):37-47 (In Persian).
26. Hadavandkhani F, Bahmani H, Behnia F, Farahbod M, Salehi M. Relationship between visual-motor integration and handwriting in mentally retarded students. Research on exceptional Children. 1385/2007;7(1):98-112 (In Persian).
27. Hadavandkhani F, Bahmani H, Behnia F, Farahbod M, Salehi M. The association of visual-motor integration with handwriting in mentally retarded students. Research on Exceptional Children. 2007; 1386;23(1):97-112 (In Persian).
28. Dewey D, Tupper DE. Developmental motor disorders: A neuropsychological perspective. Bornstein RA, editor. New York & London: Guilford Press; 2004.
29. Javantash A, Mirzakhani N, Pashazadeh Z. The quest for exploring the normal speed of handwriting in students of grade 2-5 in Tehran. Quarterly Journal of Medical Rehabilitation. 1391/2012;1(1):81-73.
30. Bruininks RH. Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency: Examiner's manual. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service; 1987.
31. Salehi H, Afsordeh Bakhshayesh R, Movahedi A, Ghasemi V. Psychometric properties of a ‎Persian version of the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire in boys aged 6-11 year-‎old. ‎ Quarterly Psychology of Exceptional Individuals. 1390/2012;1(4):135-61 (In Persian).
32. Smits-Engelsman BC, Niemeijer AS, Van Galen GP. Fine motor deficiencies in children diagnosed as DCD based on poor grapho-motor ability. Human Movement Science. 2001;20(1-2):161-82 [DOI:10.1016/S0167-9457(01)00033-1]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2022 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Research in Sport Management and Motor Behavior

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb