Volume 13, Issue 26 (12-2023)                   JRSM 2023, 13(26): 141-160 | Back to browse issues page

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nazari S, najafian F, ramezani S, homayounnia Firouzjah M, barmaki F. The Effect of Visual Illusion and Attention Instructions on Golf Putting Performance and Impact Learning in Children. JRSM 2023; 13 (26) :141-160
URL: http://jrsm.khu.ac.ir/article-1-3205-en.html
1- PhD, Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran
2- MSc, Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, of Alzahra, University Tehran, Iran , f.najafian95@gmail.com
3- MSc, Department of Learning and motor control, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
4- Assistant Professor, Department of Physical Education, Farhangian University, Tehran, Iran.
5- MSc Student, Department of Learning and motor control, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran
Abstract:   (2029 Views)
The purpose of this study was  the effect of visual illusions and focus of attention instructions on the performance and learning of the golf putt. A total of 48 students with an age range of 7-9 years were selected from the community in a targeted manner and randomly divided into four groups (large visual illusion with external focus of attention instruction, large visual illusion with internal focus of attention instruction, small visual illusion with external focus of attention instruction, small visual illusion internal focus of attention instruction) were allocated.The current research was conducted in five different phases of pre-test, acquisition, retention, transfer and dual task. results a mixed two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) repeated measure, showed that in all phases, especially the dual task, the two groups of external focus of attention with  large  and  small visual illusion performed better than other groups. These findings showed the importance of external attention and  additive Effects of an  External Focus and  visual illusions in Learning a Motor Skill, which may be platform for encourages implicit learning mechanisms, it is recommended that physical education coaches use psychological variables (external focus of attention and visual illusions) in practicing  golf  putting  skills.
Full-Text [PDF 1951 kb]   (198 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: motor behavior
Received: 2023/05/22 | Accepted: 2023/12/20 | ePublished ahead of print: 2023/12/20 | Published: 2023/12/29

References
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2. Lewthwaite R, Wulf G. Social-comparative feedback affects motor skill learning. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology.2010;63(4): 738-749. [DOI:10.1080/17470210903111839]
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4. Wulf G, Lauterbach B, Toole T. The learning advantages of an external focus of attention in golf. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 1999; 70:120-126. [DOI:10.1080/02701367.1999.10608029]
5. Wulf G, McNevin NH, Fuchs T, Ritter F, Toole T. Attentional focus in complex skill learning. Research Quarterly For Exercise and Sport. 2000; 71: 229-239. [DOI:10.1080/02701367.2000.10608903]
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7. Wulf G. Attentional focus and motor learning: A review of 15 years. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2013; 6: 77-104. [DOI:10.1080/1750984X.2012.723728]
8. Lohse KR. The influence of attention on learning and performance: Pre-movement time and accuracy in an isometric force production task. Human Movement Science. 2012; 31: 12-25. [DOI:10.1016/j.humov.2011.06.001]
9. Wulf G. Attention and motor skill learning. Champaign. IL: Human Kinetics.2007. [DOI:10.5040/9781492596844]
10. Kal EC, VanderKamp J, Houdijk H. External attentional focus enhances movement automatization: A comprehensive test of the constrained action hypothesis. Human movement science. 2013; 32(4): 527-539.‌ [DOI:10.1016/j.humov.2013.04.001]
11. Bell JJ, Hardy J. Effects of attentional focus on skilled performance in golf. J Appl Sport Psychol. 2009;21(2):163-177. [DOI:10.1080/10413200902795323]
12. Poolton JM, Maxwell JP, Masters RSW, Raab M. Benefits of an external focus of attention: Common coding or conscious processing? Journal of Sports Sciences. 2006; 24:89-99. [DOI:10.1080/02640410500130854]
13. Becker KA, Hung CJ. Attentional focus influences sample entropy in a balancing task. Human Movement Science. 2020 Aug 1;72:102631. [DOI:10.1016/j.humov.2020.102631]
14. Law JC, Wong TW. Internal focus instruction increases psychological stress with conscious motor processing and deteriorates motor performance in dart throwing. Cognitive Processing.2020: 1-8. [DOI:10.1007/s10339-020-00991-7]
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21. Sherwood DE. Effect of bandwidth knowledge of results on movement consistency. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 1988; 66(2): 535-542. [DOI:10.2466/pms.1988.66.2.535]
22. Witt JK, Linkenauger SA, Bakdash JZ, Proffitt DR. Putting to a bigger hole: Golf performance relates to perceived size. Psychonomic bulletin & review. 2008;15(3):581-585. [DOI:10.3758/PBR.15.3.581]
23. Palmer, Chiviacowsky, Wulf G. Enhanced expectancies facilitate golf putting.Psychology of Sport & Exercise. 2016; 22(C): 229-232. [DOI:10.1016/j.psychsport.2015.08.009]
24. Cañal-Bruland, R, van der Meer Y, Moerman J. (2016). Can visual illusions be used to facilitate sport skill learning? Journal of motor behavior. 2016;48(5), 285-389.‌ [DOI:10.1080/00222895.2015.1113916]
25. Elizabeth A. Sanli Timothy D. What Roles Do Errors Serve in Motor Skill Learning? An Examination of Two Theoretical Predictions, Journal of Motor Behavior. 2014; 46:5:329-337.DOI: 10.1080/00222895.2014.913544. [DOI:10.1080/00222895.2014.913544]
26. Stevens D, Anderson DI, O'Dwyer NJ, Williams AM. Does self-efficacy mediate transfer effects in the learning of easy and difficult motor skills?. Consciousness and cognition. 2012; 21(3): 1122-1128. [DOI:10.1016/j.concog.2012.03.014]
27. Wood G, Vine SJ, Wilson MR. The impact of visual illusions on perception, action planning, and motor performance. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics. 2013; 75(5): 830-834. [DOI:10.3758/s13414-013-0489-y]
28. Bahmani M, Wulf G, Ghadiri F, Karimi s, Lewthwate R. Enhancing performance expectancies through visual illusions facilitates motor learning in children. Human Movement Science (in press).2017. [DOI:10.1016/j.humov.2017.07.001]
29. Cañal-Bruland R, Müller F, Lach B, Spence C. Auditory contributions to visual anticipation in tennis. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2018; 36: 100-103. [DOI:10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.02.001]
30. Chua, L. K., Wulf, G., & Lewthwaite, R. (2018). Onward and upward: Optimizing motor performance. Human Movement Science, 60, 107-114. [DOI:10.1016/j.humov.2018.05.006]
31. Land WM, Frank C, Schack T. The influence of attentional focuson the development of skill representation in a complex action. Psychol. Sport Exerc. 2014; 15: 30-38.doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2013.09.006. [DOI:10.1016/j.psychsport.2013.09.006]
32. Tse AC, Fong SS, Wong TW, Masters R. (2017). Analogy motor learning by young children: a study of rope skipping. Eur. J. Sport Sci. 2017; 17: 152-159. doi: 10.1080/17461391.2016.1214184 [DOI:10.1080/17461391.2016.1214184]
33. Kal E, Winters M, Van Der Kamp J, Houdijk H, Groet E, Van Bennekom C, Scherder E. Is implicit motor learning preserved after stroke? A systematic review with meta-analysis. 2016; 11(12): e0166376. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0166376]
34. Ong NT, Lohse KR, Sze AF, Hodges NJ. Investigating the moderating influence of self-efficacy in an errorless learning protocol. In Journal of sport & exercsise psychology. 2013.
35. Tsetseli M, Zetou E, Vernadakis N, Mountaki F. The attentional focus impact on tennis skills' technique in 10 and under years old players: Implications for real game situations.2018. [DOI:10.14198/jhse.2018.132.15]
36. Allingham E, Wöllner C. Effects of Attentional Focus on Motor Performance and Physiology in a Slow-Motion Violin Bow-Control Task: Evidence for the Constrained Action Hypothesis in Bowed String Technique. Journal of Research in Music Education. 2021. [DOI:10.1177/00224294211034735]
37. Maxwell JP, Masters RSW, Kerr E, Weedon E. The implicit benefit of learning without errors. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 2001; 54:1049-1068. PubMed ID: 11765732 doi:10.1080/713756014. [DOI:10.1080/713756014]
38. Maxwell JP, Masters RSW, Eves FF. The role of working memory in motor learning and performance. Consciousness and Cognition. 2003; 12(3): 376-402. [DOI:10.1016/S1053-8100(03)00005-9]
39. Maquestiaux F, Arexis M, Chauvel G, Ladoy J, Boyer P, Mazerolle M. Ebbinghaus visual illusion: no robust influence on novice golf-putting performance. Psychological research. 2021. 85(3), 1156-1166. [DOI:10.1007/s00426-020-01298-0]
40. Lohse KR, Jones M, Healy AF, Sherwood DE. The role of attention in motor control. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 2014; 143: 930-948. [DOI:10.1037/a0032817]
41. Masters RSW, Poolton JM, Maxwell JP. Stable implicit motor processes despite aerobic locomotor fatigue. Consciousness and Cognition. 2008; 17:335-338. [DOI:10.1016/j.concog.2007.03.009]
42. Zhu FF, Poolton JM, Wilson MR, Maxwell JP, Masters RSW. Neural co-activation as a yardstick of implicit motor learning and the propensity for conscious control of movement. Biological Psychology.2011; 87(1): 66-73 [DOI:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2011.02.004]
43. Wulf G, McNevin NH, Shea CH. The automaticity of complex motor skill learning as a function of attentional focus. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section A, 54A. 2001: 1143-1154. [DOI:10.1080/713756012]
44. Lewthwaite R, Wulf G. Social-comparative feedback affects motor skill learning. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology.2010;63(4): 738-749. [DOI:10.1080/17470210903111839]
45. Magill R, Anderson D. Motor learning and control. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing. 2010. 4.
46. Wulf G, Lauterbach B, Toole T. The learning advantages of an external focus of attention in golf. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 1999; 70:120-126. [DOI:10.1080/02701367.1999.10608029]
47. Wulf G, McNevin NH, Fuchs T, Ritter F, Toole T. Attentional focus in complex skill learning. Research Quarterly For Exercise and Sport. 2000; 71: 229-239. [DOI:10.1080/02701367.2000.10608903]
48. Zachry T, Wulf G, Mercer J, Bezodis N. Increased movement accuracy and reduced EMG activity as the result of adopting an external focus of attention. Brain Res Bull. 2005;67(4):304-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.brainresbull.2005.06.035]
49. Wulf G. Attentional focus and motor learning: A review of 15 years. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2013; 6: 77-104. [DOI:10.1080/1750984X.2012.723728]
50. Lohse KR. The influence of attention on learning and performance: Pre-movement time and accuracy in an isometric force production task. Human Movement Science. 2012; 31: 12-25. [DOI:10.1016/j.humov.2011.06.001]
51. Wulf G. Attention and motor skill learning. Champaign. IL: Human Kinetics.2007. [DOI:10.5040/9781492596844]
52. Kal EC, VanderKamp J, Houdijk H. External attentional focus enhances movement automatization: A comprehensive test of the constrained action hypothesis. Human movement science. 2013; 32(4): 527-539.‌ [DOI:10.1016/j.humov.2013.04.001]
53. Bell JJ, Hardy J. Effects of attentional focus on skilled performance in golf. J Appl Sport Psychol. 2009;21(2):163-177. [DOI:10.1080/10413200902795323]
54. Poolton JM, Maxwell JP, Masters RSW, Raab M. Benefits of an external focus of attention: Common coding or conscious processing? Journal of Sports Sciences. 2006; 24:89-99. [DOI:10.1080/02640410500130854]
55. Becker KA, Hung CJ. Attentional focus influences sample entropy in a balancing task. Human Movement Science. 2020 Aug 1;72:102631. [DOI:10.1016/j.humov.2020.102631]
56. Law JC, Wong TW. Internal focus instruction increases psychological stress with conscious motor processing and deteriorates motor performance in dart throwing. Cognitive Processing.2020: 1-8. [DOI:10.1007/s10339-020-00991-7]
57. Wulf G, Lewthwaite R. Effortless motor learning? An external focus of attention enhances movement effectiveness and efficiency. In B. Bruya (Ed), Effortless attention: A new perspective in the cognitive science of attention and action.2010; 75-101. [DOI:10.7551/mitpress/9780262013840.003.0004]
58. Chauvel G, Wulf G, Maquestiaux F. Visual illusions can facilitate sport skill learning. Psychonomic bulletin & review. 2015; 22(3):717-721. [DOI:10.3758/s13423-014-0744-9]
59. Witt JK, Linkenauger SA, Proffitt DR. Get me out of this slump! Visual illusions improve sports performance. Psychological Science. 2012;23(4): 397-399. [DOI:10.1177/0956797611428810]
60. Marchant DC, Carnegiea E, Wood G, Ellison P. Influence of visual illusion and attentional focusing instruction in motor Performance.International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2018. DOI: 10.1080/1612197X.2018.1441165. [DOI:10.1080/1612197X.2018.1441165]
61. Wulf G, Lewthwaite R, Cardozo P, Chiviacowsky S. Triple play: Additive contributions of enhanced expectancies, autonomy support, and external attentional focus to motor learning. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 2017. doi:10.1080/17470218.2016.1276204 [DOI:10.1080/17470218.2016.1276204]
62. Agethen M, Krause D. Effects of bandwidth feedback on the automatization of an arm movement sequence. Human Movement Science. 2016; 45:71-83. [DOI:10.1016/j.humov.2015.11.005]
63. Sherwood DE. Effect of bandwidth knowledge of results on movement consistency. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 1988; 66(2): 535-542. [DOI:10.2466/pms.1988.66.2.535]
64. Witt JK, Linkenauger SA, Bakdash JZ, Proffitt DR. Putting to a bigger hole: Golf performance relates to perceived size. Psychonomic bulletin & review. 2008;15(3):581-585. [DOI:10.3758/PBR.15.3.581]
65. Palmer, Chiviacowsky, Wulf G. Enhanced expectancies facilitate golf putting.Psychology of Sport & Exercise. 2016; 22(C): 229-232. [DOI:10.1016/j.psychsport.2015.08.009]
66. Cañal-Bruland, R, van der Meer Y, Moerman J. (2016). Can visual illusions be used to facilitate sport skill learning? Journal of motor behavior. 2016;48(5), 285-389.‌ [DOI:10.1080/00222895.2015.1113916]
67. Elizabeth A. Sanli Timothy D. What Roles Do Errors Serve in Motor Skill Learning? An Examination of Two Theoretical Predictions, Journal of Motor Behavior. 2014; 46:5:329-337.DOI: 10.1080/00222895.2014.913544. [DOI:10.1080/00222895.2014.913544]
68. Stevens D, Anderson DI, O'Dwyer NJ, Williams AM. Does self-efficacy mediate transfer effects in the learning of easy and difficult motor skills?. Consciousness and cognition. 2012; 21(3): 1122-1128. [DOI:10.1016/j.concog.2012.03.014]
69. Wood G, Vine SJ, Wilson MR. The impact of visual illusions on perception, action planning, and motor performance. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics. 2013; 75(5): 830-834. [DOI:10.3758/s13414-013-0489-y]
70. Bahmani M, Wulf G, Ghadiri F, Karimi s, Lewthwate R. Enhancing performance expectancies through visual illusions facilitates motor learning in children. Human Movement Science (in press).2017. [DOI:10.1016/j.humov.2017.07.001]
71. Cañal-Bruland R, Müller F, Lach B, Spence C. Auditory contributions to visual anticipation in tennis. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2018; 36: 100-103. [DOI:10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.02.001]
72. Chua, L. K., Wulf, G., & Lewthwaite, R. (2018). Onward and upward: Optimizing motor performance. Human Movement Science, 60, 107-114. [DOI:10.1016/j.humov.2018.05.006]
73. Land WM, Frank C, Schack T. The influence of attentional focuson the development of skill representation in a complex action. Psychol. Sport Exerc. 2014; 15: 30-38.doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2013.09.006. [DOI:10.1016/j.psychsport.2013.09.006]
74. Tse AC, Fong SS, Wong TW, Masters R. (2017). Analogy motor learning by young children: a study of rope skipping. Eur. J. Sport Sci. 2017; 17: 152-159. doi: 10.1080/17461391.2016.1214184 [DOI:10.1080/17461391.2016.1214184]
75. Kal E, Winters M, Van Der Kamp J, Houdijk H, Groet E, Van Bennekom C, Scherder E. Is implicit motor learning preserved after stroke? A systematic review with meta-analysis. 2016; 11(12): e0166376. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0166376]
76. Ong NT, Lohse KR, Sze AF, Hodges NJ. Investigating the moderating influence of self-efficacy in an errorless learning protocol. In Journal of sport & exercsise psychology. 2013.
77. Tsetseli M, Zetou E, Vernadakis N, Mountaki F. The attentional focus impact on tennis skills' technique in 10 and under years old players: Implications for real game situations.2018. [DOI:10.14198/jhse.2018.132.15]
78. Allingham E, Wöllner C. Effects of Attentional Focus on Motor Performance and Physiology in a Slow-Motion Violin Bow-Control Task: Evidence for the Constrained Action Hypothesis in Bowed String Technique. Journal of Research in Music Education. 2021. [DOI:10.1177/00224294211034735]
79. Maxwell JP, Masters RSW, Kerr E, Weedon E. The implicit benefit of learning without errors. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 2001; 54:1049-1068. PubMed ID: 11765732 doi:10.1080/713756014. [DOI:10.1080/713756014]
80. Maxwell JP, Masters RSW, Eves FF. The role of working memory in motor learning and performance. Consciousness and Cognition. 2003; 12(3): 376-402. [DOI:10.1016/S1053-8100(03)00005-9]
81. Maquestiaux F, Arexis M, Chauvel G, Ladoy J, Boyer P, Mazerolle M. Ebbinghaus visual illusion: no robust influence on novice golf-putting performance. Psychological research. 2021. 85(3), 1156-1166. [DOI:10.1007/s00426-020-01298-0]
82. Lohse KR, Jones M, Healy AF, Sherwood DE. The role of attention in motor control. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 2014; 143: 930-948. [DOI:10.1037/a0032817]
83. Masters RSW, Poolton JM, Maxwell JP. Stable implicit motor processes despite aerobic locomotor fatigue. Consciousness and Cognition. 2008; 17:335-338. [DOI:10.1016/j.concog.2007.03.009]
84. Zhu FF, Poolton JM, Wilson MR, Maxwell JP, Masters RSW. Neural co-activation as a yardstick of implicit motor learning and the propensity for conscious control of movement. Biological Psychology.2011; 87(1): 66-73 [DOI:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2011.02.004]

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