Volume 13, Issue 26 (12-2023)                   JRSM 2023, 13(26): 161-187 | Back to browse issues page

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Arabnarmi B, Bandali E. Sport Hero(ine)’s Features And Barriers To Achieve Their Status From The Student’s Viewpoints. JRSM 2023; 13 (26) :161-187
URL: http://jrsm.khu.ac.ir/article-1-3137-en.html
1- Assistant Professor, Department of Sport Science, Faculty of Humanities, University of Neyshabur, Neyshabur, Iran. , b.arabnarmi@neyshabur.ac.ir
2- Ph.D. Student, Department of Management and Accounting, College of Farabi, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract:   (2267 Views)
The aim of this study was to examine sport hero/ine’s features and barriers to achieve their status based on students’ viewpoints. 300 students participated and wrote about obstacles of achieving the status of their hero/in through answering open questions. Data were analyzed using descriptive-analytical method and using Van Dijk's theoretical model (2004) in the framework of critical discourse analysis considering macro and micro levels. In describing the sports hero/ine, the women pointed to physical, facial, and behavioral-moral traits, respectively. Also men pay more attention to behavioral-moral, faces and personalities than other traits. The frequency of describing physical, facial, and behavioral-moral traits was significantly higher than other traits. Barriers were divided into 6 classes. Based on the Proportion test, Economic, socio-cultural and personal barriers make the hero's position significantly more difficult than other barriers. Analysis according to macro level of Van Dijk square represented that emphasizing negative properties of Them has the highest frequency among other properties. Participants have used micro strategies of fallacies, victimization, generalization and lexicalization to express barriers. The variables governing the minds of participants and how they are applied in the language suggest that they create inappropriate conditions for making a pattern to be hero/ine.
Full-Text [PDF 1869 kb]   (165 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: sport management
Received: 2023/01/7 | Accepted: 2023/11/21 | ePublished ahead of print: 2023/11/21 | Published: 2023/12/29

References
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30. Lyle J. Sporting Success, Role Models and Participation: A Policy Related Review. Research Report no101. sport Scotland, Edinburgh: Leeds Metropolitan University; 2009.
31. Meier M. The value of female sporting role models. Sport in Society. 2015;18(8):968-82. [DOI:10.1080/17430437.2014.997581]
32. Butterworth ML. Race in "The Race": Mark McGwire, Sammy Sosa, and Heroic Constructions of Whiteness. Critical Studies in Media Communication. 2007;24(3):228-44. [DOI:10.1080/07393180701520926]
33. Arab Narmi B, Goudarzi M, Sajjadi SN, Khabiri M. The Role of Television in Developing Championship; a Study Based on Ground Theory. Communication Research. 2016;22(84):33-53.
34. Shabkolayee AE, Mohammad Khani Molkooh M. The Role of TV in Popularization of Football in Iran. Communication Research. 2012;19(69):71-100.
35. Arabnarmi B, Goodarzi M, Sajjadi SN, Khabiri M. Analysis of Current State of Professional Sport in National TV. Sport Management Studies. 2018;10(47):17-38.
36. Azadarmaki T. Football, Paradox and Modernization. Journal of Social Science Letter. 2002;19(1):5-18.
37. Ghiamirad A, Moharramzadeh M. Evaluation of marketing strategies for development and promotion of sports. Harakat. 2009;39(5):175-92.
38. Mozaffari A, Elahi A, Abbasi S, Ahadpoor H, Rezaee Z. Strategies for development of Iran's championship sport system. Sport Management Studies. 2012;4(13):33-48.
39. Allen D. 'National Heroes': Sport and the Creation of Icons. Sport in History. 2013;33(4):584-94. [DOI:10.1080/17460263.2013.850782]
40. Arabnarmi B. TV and Public Sport Development: A Grounded Theory. 2017;8:17-38.
41. Aghagolzadeh F. Critical Discourse Analysis. 3th, editor. Tehran: Scientific and cultural publications; 2015.
42. Shuart J. Heroes in sport: assessing celebrity endorser effectiveness. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship. 2007;8(2):11-25. [DOI:10.1108/IJSMS-08-02-2007-B004]
43. Basil MD. Identification as a mediator of celebrity effects. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media. 1996;40(4):478-95. [DOI:10.1080/08838159609364370]
44. Wann D, Schinner J, Keenan B. Males' impressions of female fans and nonfans: There really is "something about Mary". North American Journal of Psychology. 2022:183-92.
45. jahromi sj, Taghiabadi M. Iranian microcelebrities in the Selfie Frame The semiotic study of microcelebrity in Instagram. Journal of Culture-Communication Studies. 2019;20(46):113-56.
46. Parry K. Search for the hero: An investigation into the sports heroes of British sports fans. Sport in Society. 2009;12. [DOI:10.1080/17430430802591001]
47. Chung H. Sport Star Vs Rock Star in Globalizing Popular Culture: Similarities, Difference and Paradox in Discussion of Celebrities. International Review for the Sociology of Sport. 2003;38(1):99-108. [DOI:10.1177/1012690203038001731]
48. Ingham AG, Howell JW, Swetman RD. Evaluating Sport "Hero/ines": Contents, Forms, and Social Relations. Quest. 1993;45(2):197-210. [DOI:10.1080/00336297.1993.10484084]
49. Lines G. Villains, fools or heroes? Sports stars as role models for young people. Leisure Studies. 2001;20(4):285-303. [DOI:10.1080/02614360110094661]
50. Kunkel T, Doyle J, Na S. Becoming more than an athlete: developing an athlete's personal brand using strategic philanthropy. European Sport Management Quarterly. 2022;22(3):358-78. [DOI:10.1080/16184742.2020.1791208]
51. Drucker S. The Mediated Sports Hero. In American Heroes in a Media Age. New Jersey: Hampton Press; 1997.
52. Richards JC. Longman dictionary of language teaching and applied linguistics: Third edition / Jack C. Richards and Richard Schmidt ; with Heidi Kendricks and Youngkyu Kim. London ; New York : Longman, 2002.; 2002.
53. Green M. Changing policy priorities for sport in England: the emergence of elite sport development as a key policy concern. Leisure Studies. 2004;23(4):365-85. [DOI:10.1080/0261436042000231646]
54. Green MJ. An analysis of elite sport policy change in three sports in Canada and the United Kingdom: Loughborough University.; 2003.
55. Sport. U. UK Sport Lottery Strategy 2002-2005. In: Sport U, editor. London2002.
56. Green C. Building Sport Programs to Optimize Athlete Recruitment, Retention, and Transition: Toward a Normative Theory of Sport Development. Journal of Sport Management. 2005;19:233-53. [DOI:10.1123/jsm.19.3.233]
57. Bosscher V, Shibli S, Weber A. Is prioritisation of funding in elite sport effective? An analysis of the investment strategies in 16 countries. European Sport Management Quarterly. 2018;19:1-23. [DOI:10.1080/16184742.2018.1505926]
58. Green M. Podium or participation? Analysing policy priorities under changing modes of sport governance in the United Kingdom. International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics. 2009;1(2):121-44. [DOI:10.1080/19406940902950697]
59. Maguire J. The social construction and impact of champions. Sport in Society. 2009;12(9):1250-64. [DOI:10.1080/17430430903137944]
60. Van Dijk TA. Ideology and Discourse: A multidisciplinary introduction. Barcelona: Pompeu Fabra University; 2004.
61. Firoozian A, Aghagolzadeh F. The Representation of Ideology in Translation of English Political Texts Regarding the Strategies of Style and Rhetoric: A Case of Critical Discourse Analysis. Journal of Linguistics & Khorasan Dialects. 2016;8(14):25-49.
62. Firoozian A, Aghagolzadeh F, Golfam A, KordZaaferanloo Kambuzia A. The role of syntactic strategies in the representation of Persian translator's ideologist in English socio-political texts: CDA approach. Journal of Linguistics & Khorasan Dialects. 2019;10(19):35-48.
63. Meân LJ, Halone KK. Sport, Language, and Culture: Issues and Intersections. Journal of Language and Social Psychology. 2010;29(3):253-60. [DOI:10.1177/0261927X10368830]
64. Mean J, L. Foreword in The Discourse of Sport, Analyses from Social Linguistic: Routledge; 2016.
65. Beard A. The Language of Sport. London: Routledge; 1998.
66. Eva L, Pisek G, Skinner A, Stadler W. The Linguistics of Football: Language in Performance Series 38: Tübingen: Nar Francke Attempto Verlag; 2008.
67. Schirato T. Sports Discourse. London: Bloomsbury; 2013. [DOI:10.5040/9781472542052]
68. Walsh J, Jureidini J. Language as a Key Resource for the Football Coach A Case Study of In-Game Coaching at One Australian Rules Club In The Discourse of Sport, Analyses from Social Linguistic: Routledge; 2016.
69. Doyle JP, Su Y, Kunkel T. Athlete branding via social media: examining the factors influencing consumer engagement on Instagram. European Sport Management Quarterly. 2022;22(4):506-26. [DOI:10.1080/16184742.2020.1806897]
70. Meier M. The value of female sporting role models. 2015;18(8):968-82. [DOI:10.1080/17430437.2014.997581]
71. Lyle J. Sporting Success, Role Models and Participation: A Policy Related Review. Research Report no101. sport Scotland, Edinburgh: Leeds Metropolitan University; 2009.
72. Meier M. The value of female sporting role models. Sport in Society. 2015;18(8):968-82. [DOI:10.1080/17430437.2014.997581]
73. Butterworth ML. Race in "The Race": Mark McGwire, Sammy Sosa, and Heroic Constructions of Whiteness. Critical Studies in Media Communication. 2007;24(3):228-44. [DOI:10.1080/07393180701520926]
74. Arab Narmi B, Goudarzi M, Sajjadi SN, Khabiri M. The Role of Television in Developing Championship; a Study Based on Ground Theory. Communication Research. 2016;22(84):33-53.
75. Shabkolayee AE, Mohammad Khani Molkooh M. The Role of TV in Popularization of Football in Iran. Communication Research. 2012;19(69):71-100.
76. Arabnarmi B, Goodarzi M, Sajjadi SN, Khabiri M. Analysis of Current State of Professional Sport in National TV. Sport Management Studies. 2018;10(47):17-38.
77. Azadarmaki T. Football, Paradox and Modernization. Journal of Social Science Letter. 2002;19(1):5-18.
78. Ghiamirad A, Moharramzadeh M. Evaluation of marketing strategies for development and promotion of sports. Harakat. 2009;39(5):175-92.
79. Mozaffari A, Elahi A, Abbasi S, Ahadpoor H, Rezaee Z. Strategies for development of Iran's championship sport system. Sport Management Studies. 2012;4(13):33-48.
80. Allen D. 'National Heroes': Sport and the Creation of Icons. Sport in History. 2013;33(4):584-94. [DOI:10.1080/17460263.2013.850782]
81. Arabnarmi B. TV and Public Sport Development: A Grounded Theory. 2017;8:17-38.
82. Aghagolzadeh F. Critical Discourse Analysis. 3th, editor. Tehran: Scientific and cultural publications; 2015.

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