Volume 13, Issue 26 (12-2023)                   JRSM 2023, 13(26): 101-122 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Ramezanzade H. The Role Of Movement Reinvestment In Learning And Automaticity Of Skill Based On The Interference-Error Model. JRSM 2023; 13 (26) :101-122
URL: http://jrsm.khu.ac.ir/article-1-3104-en.html
Damghan University , h.ramezanzadeh@du.ac.ir
Abstract:   (1526 Views)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of high and low reinvestment in the acquisition, retention and automaticity of dart throwing skill based on the interference-error model. One hundred participants were selected and divided into two categories of high and low movement reinvestment. Subjects of each category were randomly divided into five groups: block-errorless, block-errorfull, random-errorless, random-errorfull and random. Based on the results, the best and worst performance was observed for the random-errorless and random-errorfull groups respectively. There was a significant difference between categories of high and low reinvestment in retention and automaticity tests in favor of low reinvestment. In both the acquisition and retention test, the block groups performed better in the high reinvestment category and the random groups performed better in the low reinvestment category. At the automaticity phase, all groups executed better in the low reinvestment category. The results show that the level of reinvestment can play an important role in learning and automaticity of motor skills. People with lower level of reinvestment perform better in practice conditions with more cognitive effort (random practice) and people with a higher level of reinvestment perform better in practice conditions with less cognitive effort (block practice).
Full-Text [PDF 1987 kb]   (146 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: motor behavior
Received: 2023/02/19 | Accepted: 2023/12/22 | ePublished ahead of print: 2023/12/22 | Published: 2023/12/29

References
1. Masters RSW, Maxwell JP. Implicit motor learning, reinvestment and movement disruption: What you don't know won't hurt you? In A.M. Williams & N.J. Hodges (Eds.) Skill Acquisition in Sport: Research, Theory and Practice (pp. 207-228). 1, editor. London: Routledge; 2004.
2. Deikman. Deautomatization and the mystic experience. In C.T. Tart (Ed.) Altered States of Consciousness. New York: Wiley; 1969.
3. Masters RSW, Maxwell JP. The theory of reinvestment. International. Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2008; 1:160-83. [DOI:10.1080/17509840802287218]
4. Masters RSW. Knowledge, knerves and know-how: the role of explicit versus implicit knowledge in the breakdown of a complex motor skill under pressure. British Journal of Psychology. 1992;83:343-58. [DOI:10.1111/j.2044-8295.1992.tb02446.x]
5. Mor N, Winquist J. Self-focused attention and negative affect: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin. 2002;128:638-62. [DOI:10.1037/0033-2909.128.4.638]
6. Hamilton NA, Ingram RE. Self focusing attention and coping: Attending to the right things. In C.R. Snyder (Ed.) Coping with stress: Effective people and processes (pp. 178-95). Oxford, University Press. 2001.
7. Beilock SL, Carr TH. On the fragility of skilled performance: What governs choking under pressure? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 2001;130:701-25. [DOI:10.1037//0096-3445.130.4.701]
8. Dietrich A. Neurocognitive mechanisms underlying the experience of flow. Consciousness and Cognition. 2004;13:746-61. [DOI:10.1016/j.concog.2004.07.002]
9. Carver CS, Scheier MF. On the self-regulation of behavior. 1, editor. New York: Cambridge, University Press; 1998. [DOI:10.1017/CBO9781139174794]
10. Duval S, Wicklund RA. A theory of objective self-awareness. New York: Academic Press; 1972.
11. Vance J, Wulf G, Tollner T, Mcnevin N, Mercer J. EMG activity as a function of the performer's focus of attention. Journal of Motor Behavior. 2004; 36: 450-9. [DOI:10.3200/JMBR.36.4.450-459]
12. Gucciardi DF, Dimmock JA. Choking under pressure in sensorimotor skills: Conscious processing or depleted attentional resources?. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2008; 9:45-59. [DOI:10.1016/j.psychsport.2006.10.007]
13. Bellomo E, Cooke A, Hardy J. Chunking, Conscious processing, and EEG during sequence acquisition and performance pressure: A comprehensive test of reinvestment theory. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2018;40(3):135-45. [DOI:10.1123/jsep.2017-0308]
14. Pijpers JR, Oudejans RR, Bakker FC. Anxiety-induced changes in movement behavior during the execution of a complex whole-body task. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 2005;58:421-45. [DOI:10.1080/02724980343000945]
15. Mullen R, Hardy L, Oldham A. Implicit and explicit control of motor actions: Revisiting some early evidence. British Journal of Psychology. 2007;98:141-56. [DOI:10.1348/000712606X114336]
16. Wilson M, Smith NC, Holmes PS. The role of effort in influencing the effect of anxiety on performance: Testing the conflicting predictions of processing efficiency theory and the conscious processing hypothesis. British Journal of Psychology. 2007;98:411-28. [DOI:10.1348/000712606X133047]
17. Maxwell JP, Masters RSW, Eves FF. From novice to know-how: A longitudinal study of implicit motor learning. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2000;18:111-20. [DOI:10.1080/026404100365180]
18. Liao CM, Masters RSW. Self-focused attention and performance failure under psychological stress. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2002;24:289-305. [DOI:10.1123/jsep.24.3.289]
19. Maxwell JP, Masters RSW, Eves FF. The role of working memory in motor learning and performance. Consciousness and Cognition. 2003;12:376-402. [DOI:10.1016/S1053-8100(03)00005-9]
20. Reber A. Implicit learning and tacit knowledge: Oxford University Press; 1993.
21. Orrell A, Masters RSW, Eves FF. Reinvestment and movement disruption following stroke. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair. 2009; 23:177-83. [DOI:10.1177/1545968308317752]
22. Smeeton NJ, Williams AM, Hodges NJ, Ward P. The relative effectiveness of various instructional approaches in developing anticipation skill. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied. 2005;11:98-110. [DOI:10.1037/1076-898X.11.2.98]
23. Poolton JM, Maxwell JP, Masters RSW, Raab M. Benefits of an external focus of attention: Common coding or conscious processing? Journal of Sport Sciences. 2006;24:89-99. [DOI:10.1080/02640410500130854]
24. Maxwell JP, Masters R, Kerr E, Weedon E. The implicit benefit of learning without errors. Quartery Journal of Experimental Psychololgy. 2001;54A:1049-68. [DOI:10.1080/02724980143000073]
25. Tse ACY, Wong TWL, Masters RSW. Examining motor learning in older adults using analogy instruction. Psychololgy of Sport and Exercise. 2017;28:78-84. [DOI:10.1016/j.psychsport.2016.10.005]
26. Kal E, Prosee R, Winters M, van der Kamp J. Does implicit motor learning lead to greater automatization of motor skills compared to explicit motor learning? A systematic review. PLoS ONE. 2018;13(9):e0203591. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0203591]
27. Masters RSW, Polman RCJ, Hammond NV. Reinvestment: A dimension of personality implicated in skill breakdown under pressure. Personality and Individual Differences. 1993;14:655-66. [DOI:10.1016/0191-8869(93)90113-H]
28. Bawden MAK, Maynard IW, Westbury T. The effects of conscious control of movement and dispositional self-consciousness on golf putting performance. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2001;19:68-9.
29. Jackson RC, Ashford KJ, Norsworthy G. Attentional focus, dispositional reinvestment, and skilled motor performance under pressure. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2006;28:49-68. [DOI:10.1123/jsep.28.1.49]
30. Kinrade N, Jackson RC, Ashford KJ, Bishop DT. Development and validation of the decision-specific reinvestment scale. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2010;28:1127-35. [DOI:10.1080/02640414.2010.499439]
31. Masters R, MacMahon KMA, Pall HS. Implicit motor learning in Parkinson's disease. Rehabilitation Psychology. 2004;49:79-82. [DOI:10.1037/0090-5550.49.1.79]
32. Poolton J, Masters RSW, Maxwell JP. The relationship between initial errorless learning conditions and subsequent performance. Human Movement Sciences. 2005;24:362-78. [DOI:10.1016/j.humov.2005.06.006]
33. Masters RSW, Poolton JM, Maxwell JP, Raab M. Implicit motor learning and complex decision making in time constrained environments. Journal of Motor Behavior. 2008;40(71-79). [DOI:10.3200/JMBR.40.1.71-80]
34. Capio C, Poolton J, Sit C, Holmstrom M, Masters RSW. Reducing errors benefits the Field-based learning of a fundamental movement skill in children. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sport. 2013;23:181-8. [DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2011.01368.x]
35. Lam WK, Maxwell JP, Masters RSW. Probing the allocation of attention in implicit motor learning. Journal of Sport Science. 2010;28:1543-54. [DOI:10.1080/02640414.2010.517543]
36. Chauvel G, Maquestiaux F, Hartley AA, Joubert S, Didierjean A, Masters RSW. Age effects shrink when motor learning is predominantly supported by nondeclarative, automatic memory processes: Evidence from golf putting. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 2012;65:25-38. [DOI:10.1080/17470218.2011.588714]
37. Rendell MA, Masters R, Farrow D. The paradoxical role of cognitive effort in contextual interference and implicit motor learning. International Journal of Sport Psychology. 2009;40(4): 636-47.
38. Rendell MA, Masters RSW, Farrow D, Morris T. An implicit basis for the retention benefits of random practice. Journal of Motor Behavior. 2011;43: 1-13. [DOI:10.1080/00222895.2010.530304]
39. Farrow D, Buszard T. Exploring the applicability of the contextual interference effect in sports practice. Progress in Brain Research. 2017;234: 69-83. [DOI:10.1016/bs.pbr.2017.07.002]
40. Masters RSW, Eves FF, Maxwell J, editors. Development of a movement specific Reinvestment Scale. In T. Morris, P. Terry, S. Gordon, S. Hanrahan, L. Ievleva, G. Kolt, & P. Tremayne (Eds.) Proceedings of the ISSP 11th World Congress of Sport Psychology, Sydney; 2005; Australia.
41. Guadagnoli MA, Lee TD. Challenge point: A framework for conceptualizing the effect of various practice conditions in motor learning. Journal of Motor Behavior. 2004;36:212-24. [DOI:10.3200/JMBR.36.2.212-224]
42. Hasan Barani F, Abdoli B, Modaberi S. The effect of contextual interference and practice specificity on learning a throwing skill: A study of effortless process. Journal of Motor Learning and Development. 2015;7(1):41-55.
43. Abdoli B, Farsi AR, Ramezanzade H. Comparison effect of learning implicit and explicit learning with different levels of cognitive load on learning task coincidence anticipation timing. Motor Behavior. 2011;3(9):29-44.
44. Poolton JM, Masters RSW, Maxwell JP. Passing thoughts on the evolutionary stability of implicit motor behaviour: Performance retention under physiological fatigue Consciousness and Cognition. 2007a;16:456-68. [DOI:10.1016/j.concog.2006.06.008]
45. Magill RA, Hall KG. A review of the contextual interference effect in motor skill acquisition. Human Movement Sciences. 1990;9:241-89. [DOI:10.1016/0167-9457(90)90005-X]
46. Lee TD. Contextual interference: Generalizability and limitations. In N. J. Hodges & A. M. Williams (Ed.), Skill acquisition in sport: Research, theory and practice (pp. 79-93). New York: NY: Routledge; 2012.
47. Hung T, Lin J, Lo L, Kao J, Hung C, Chen Y, et al., editors. Effects of anxiety on EEG coherence during dart throwing. In T. Morris, P. Terry, S. Gordon, S. Hanrahan, L. Ievleva, G. Kolt, & P. Tremayne (Eds). Proceedings of the ISSP 11th World Congress of Sport Psychology; 2005;, Sydney, Australia.
48. Masters RSW, Maxwell JP. Implicit motor learning, reinvestment and movement disruption: What you don't know won't hurt you? In A.M. Williams & N.J. Hodges (Eds.) Skill Acquisition in Sport: Research, Theory and Practice (pp. 207-228). 1, editor. London: Routledge; 2004.
49. Deikman. Deautomatization and the mystic experience. In C.T. Tart (Ed.) Altered States of Consciousness. New York: Wiley; 1969.
50. Masters RSW, Maxwell JP. The theory of reinvestment. International. Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2008; 1:160-83. [DOI:10.1080/17509840802287218]
51. Masters RSW. Knowledge, knerves and know-how: the role of explicit versus implicit knowledge in the breakdown of a complex motor skill under pressure. British Journal of Psychology. 1992;83:343-58. [DOI:10.1111/j.2044-8295.1992.tb02446.x]
52. Mor N, Winquist J. Self-focused attention and negative affect: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin. 2002;128:638-62. [DOI:10.1037/0033-2909.128.4.638]
53. Hamilton NA, Ingram RE. Self focusing attention and coping: Attending to the right things. In C.R. Snyder (Ed.) Coping with stress: Effective people and processes (pp. 178-95). Oxford, University Press. 2001.
54. Beilock SL, Carr TH. On the fragility of skilled performance: What governs choking under pressure? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 2001;130:701-25. [DOI:10.1037//0096-3445.130.4.701]
55. Dietrich A. Neurocognitive mechanisms underlying the experience of flow. Consciousness and Cognition. 2004;13:746-61. [DOI:10.1016/j.concog.2004.07.002]
56. Carver CS, Scheier MF. On the self-regulation of behavior. 1, editor. New York: Cambridge, University Press; 1998. [DOI:10.1017/CBO9781139174794]
57. Duval S, Wicklund RA. A theory of objective self-awareness. New York: Academic Press; 1972.
58. Vance J, Wulf G, Tollner T, Mcnevin N, Mercer J. EMG activity as a function of the performer's focus of attention. Journal of Motor Behavior. 2004; 36: 450-9. [DOI:10.3200/JMBR.36.4.450-459]
59. Gucciardi DF, Dimmock JA. Choking under pressure in sensorimotor skills: Conscious processing or depleted attentional resources?. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2008; 9:45-59. [DOI:10.1016/j.psychsport.2006.10.007]
60. Bellomo E, Cooke A, Hardy J. Chunking, Conscious processing, and EEG during sequence acquisition and performance pressure: A comprehensive test of reinvestment theory. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2018;40(3):135-45. [DOI:10.1123/jsep.2017-0308]
61. Pijpers JR, Oudejans RR, Bakker FC. Anxiety-induced changes in movement behavior during the execution of a complex whole-body task. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 2005;58:421-45. [DOI:10.1080/02724980343000945]
62. Mullen R, Hardy L, Oldham A. Implicit and explicit control of motor actions: Revisiting some early evidence. British Journal of Psychology. 2007;98:141-56. [DOI:10.1348/000712606X114336]
63. Wilson M, Smith NC, Holmes PS. The role of effort in influencing the effect of anxiety on performance: Testing the conflicting predictions of processing efficiency theory and the conscious processing hypothesis. British Journal of Psychology. 2007;98:411-28. [DOI:10.1348/000712606X133047]
64. Maxwell JP, Masters RSW, Eves FF. From novice to know-how: A longitudinal study of implicit motor learning. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2000;18:111-20. [DOI:10.1080/026404100365180]
65. Liao CM, Masters RSW. Self-focused attention and performance failure under psychological stress. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2002;24:289-305. [DOI:10.1123/jsep.24.3.289]
66. Maxwell JP, Masters RSW, Eves FF. The role of working memory in motor learning and performance. Consciousness and Cognition. 2003;12:376-402. [DOI:10.1016/S1053-8100(03)00005-9]
67. Reber A. Implicit learning and tacit knowledge: Oxford University Press; 1993.
68. Orrell A, Masters RSW, Eves FF. Reinvestment and movement disruption following stroke. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair. 2009; 23:177-83. [DOI:10.1177/1545968308317752]
69. Smeeton NJ, Williams AM, Hodges NJ, Ward P. The relative effectiveness of various instructional approaches in developing anticipation skill. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied. 2005;11:98-110. [DOI:10.1037/1076-898X.11.2.98]
70. Poolton JM, Maxwell JP, Masters RSW, Raab M. Benefits of an external focus of attention: Common coding or conscious processing? Journal of Sport Sciences. 2006;24:89-99. [DOI:10.1080/02640410500130854]
71. Maxwell JP, Masters R, Kerr E, Weedon E. The implicit benefit of learning without errors. Quartery Journal of Experimental Psychololgy. 2001;54A:1049-68. [DOI:10.1080/02724980143000073]
72. Tse ACY, Wong TWL, Masters RSW. Examining motor learning in older adults using analogy instruction. Psychololgy of Sport and Exercise. 2017;28:78-84. [DOI:10.1016/j.psychsport.2016.10.005]
73. Kal E, Prosee R, Winters M, van der Kamp J. Does implicit motor learning lead to greater automatization of motor skills compared to explicit motor learning? A systematic review. PLoS ONE. 2018;13(9):e0203591. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0203591]
74. Masters RSW, Polman RCJ, Hammond NV. Reinvestment: A dimension of personality implicated in skill breakdown under pressure. Personality and Individual Differences. 1993;14:655-66. [DOI:10.1016/0191-8869(93)90113-H]
75. Bawden MAK, Maynard IW, Westbury T. The effects of conscious control of movement and dispositional self-consciousness on golf putting performance. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2001;19:68-9.
76. Jackson RC, Ashford KJ, Norsworthy G. Attentional focus, dispositional reinvestment, and skilled motor performance under pressure. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2006;28:49-68. [DOI:10.1123/jsep.28.1.49]
77. Kinrade N, Jackson RC, Ashford KJ, Bishop DT. Development and validation of the decision-specific reinvestment scale. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2010;28:1127-35. [DOI:10.1080/02640414.2010.499439]
78. Masters R, MacMahon KMA, Pall HS. Implicit motor learning in Parkinson's disease. Rehabilitation Psychology. 2004;49:79-82. [DOI:10.1037/0090-5550.49.1.79]
79. Poolton J, Masters RSW, Maxwell JP. The relationship between initial errorless learning conditions and subsequent performance. Human Movement Sciences. 2005;24:362-78. [DOI:10.1016/j.humov.2005.06.006]
80. Masters RSW, Poolton JM, Maxwell JP, Raab M. Implicit motor learning and complex decision making in time constrained environments. Journal of Motor Behavior. 2008;40(71-79). [DOI:10.3200/JMBR.40.1.71-80]
81. Capio C, Poolton J, Sit C, Holmstrom M, Masters RSW. Reducing errors benefits the Field-based learning of a fundamental movement skill in children. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sport. 2013;23:181-8. [DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2011.01368.x]
82. Lam WK, Maxwell JP, Masters RSW. Probing the allocation of attention in implicit motor learning. Journal of Sport Science. 2010;28:1543-54. [DOI:10.1080/02640414.2010.517543]
83. Chauvel G, Maquestiaux F, Hartley AA, Joubert S, Didierjean A, Masters RSW. Age effects shrink when motor learning is predominantly supported by nondeclarative, automatic memory processes: Evidence from golf putting. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 2012;65:25-38. [DOI:10.1080/17470218.2011.588714]
84. Rendell MA, Masters R, Farrow D. The paradoxical role of cognitive effort in contextual interference and implicit motor learning. International Journal of Sport Psychology. 2009;40(4): 636-47.
85. Rendell MA, Masters RSW, Farrow D, Morris T. An implicit basis for the retention benefits of random practice. Journal of Motor Behavior. 2011;43: 1-13. [DOI:10.1080/00222895.2010.530304]
86. Farrow D, Buszard T. Exploring the applicability of the contextual interference effect in sports practice. Progress in Brain Research. 2017;234: 69-83. [DOI:10.1016/bs.pbr.2017.07.002]
87. Masters RSW, Eves FF, Maxwell J, editors. Development of a movement specific Reinvestment Scale. In T. Morris, P. Terry, S. Gordon, S. Hanrahan, L. Ievleva, G. Kolt, & P. Tremayne (Eds.) Proceedings of the ISSP 11th World Congress of Sport Psychology, Sydney; 2005; Australia.
88. Guadagnoli MA, Lee TD. Challenge point: A framework for conceptualizing the effect of various practice conditions in motor learning. Journal of Motor Behavior. 2004;36:212-24. [DOI:10.3200/JMBR.36.2.212-224]
89. Hasan Barani F, Abdoli B, Modaberi S. The effect of contextual interference and practice specificity on learning a throwing skill: A study of effortless process. Journal of Motor Learning and Development. 2015;7(1):41-55.
90. Abdoli B, Farsi AR, Ramezanzade H. Comparison effect of learning implicit and explicit learning with different levels of cognitive load on learning task coincidence anticipation timing. Motor Behavior. 2011;3(9):29-44.
91. Poolton JM, Masters RSW, Maxwell JP. Passing thoughts on the evolutionary stability of implicit motor behaviour: Performance retention under physiological fatigue Consciousness and Cognition. 2007a;16:456-68. [DOI:10.1016/j.concog.2006.06.008]
92. Magill RA, Hall KG. A review of the contextual interference effect in motor skill acquisition. Human Movement Sciences. 1990;9:241-89. [DOI:10.1016/0167-9457(90)90005-X]
93. Lee TD. Contextual interference: Generalizability and limitations. In N. J. Hodges & A. M. Williams (Ed.), Skill acquisition in sport: Research, theory and practice (pp. 79-93). New York: NY: Routledge; 2012.
94. Hung T, Lin J, Lo L, Kao J, Hung C, Chen Y, et al., editors. Effects of anxiety on EEG coherence during dart throwing. In T. Morris, P. Terry, S. Gordon, S. Hanrahan, L. Ievleva, G. Kolt, & P. Tremayne (Eds). Proceedings of the ISSP 11th World Congress of Sport Psychology; 2005;, Sydney, Australia.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Send email to the article author


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Research in Sport Management and Motor Behavior

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb