Volume 6, Issue 12 (11-2016)                   JRSM 2016, 6(12): 1-15 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

salehi H, zandi mashhadi N, zolaktaf V, minasian V. Factor Analysis of the Retirement Decision Inventory for Iranian Elite Athletes. JRSM 2016; 6 (12) :1-15
URL: http://jrsm.khu.ac.ir/article-1-2458-en.html
Abstract:   (6753 Views)

The aim of the study was to evaluate the factor analysis and internal consistency of
a Persian version of the Athletes’ Retirement Decision Inventory (P-ARDI).
Fernandez et al. (2006) developed this instrument based on the push, pull, antipush,
and anti-pull point of view. We required 243 Iranian elite competitive athletes
(mean age = 25.19 years; 81% male) to complete the questionnaire. The factor
structure of the P-ARDI was evaluated by explanatory and confirmatory factor
analysis. The internal consistency was determined by Cronbach’s alpha. According
to the results, four-factor solution principal component analysis accounted for
65.02% of the variance of the final 36-item version of the P-ARDI. The Cronbach’s
alpha coefficient for the aforementioned factors was found to be greater than 0.7.
In sum, the results suggest that the retirement decision process was found to be
much more complex and multidimensional.

Full-Text [PDF 1405 kb]   (4038 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: sport management
Received: 2017/04/7 | Accepted: 2017/04/7 | Published: 2017/04/7

1. Koukouris K. Quantitative aspects of the disengagement process of advanced and elite Greek male athletes from organized competitive sport. Journal of Sport Behavior. 1991;14(4):227-46.
2. Sinclair DA, Orlick T. Positive transitions from high-performance sport. The Sport Psychologist. 1993;7:138-50.
3. Lavallee D, Grove JR, Gordon S. The causes of career termination from sport and their relationship to postretirement adjustment among elite-amateur athletes in Australia. Australian Psychologist. 1997;32:131-5.
4. Shultz KS, Morton KR, Weckerle JR. The influence of push and pull factors on involuntary early retirees’ retirement decision and adjustment. Journal of Vocational Behavior. 1998;53:45-57.
5. Reitzes DC, Mutran EJ, Fernandez ME. The decision to retire: A career perspective. Social Science Quarterly. 1998;79(3):607-19.
6. Mullet E, Dej V, Lemaire I, Raïff P, Barthorpe J. Studying, Working, and Living in Another EU Country. European Psychologist. 2000;5(3):216-27.
7. Fernandez A, Stephan Y, Fouquereau E. Assessing reasons for sports career termination: Development of the Athletes' Retirement Decision Inventory (ARDI). Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2006;7(4):407-21.
8. Zientek LR. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis: Understanding Concepts and Applications. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal. 2008; 15(4):729-34.
9. Stambulova N, Alfermann D. Putting culture into context: Cultural and cross‐cultural perspectives in career development and transition research and practice. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2009;7(3):292-308.
10. Alfermann D, Stambulova N, Zemaityte A. Reactions to sports career termination: A cross-national comparison of German, Lithuanian, and Russian athletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2004;5:61-75.
11. Briley DA, Morris MW, Simonson I. Reasons as carriers of culture: Dynamic vs. dispositional models of cultural influence on decision making. Journal of Consumer Research. 2000;27(2):157-78.
12. Beaton D, Bombardier, C., Guillemin, F., Feraz, M. B. Guidelines for process of cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measure Spine. 2000;25:3186–91.
13. Allison MT, Meyer C. Career problems and retirement among elite athletes: The female tennis professional. Sociology of Sport Journal. 1988;5:212-22.
14. Lavallee D, Nesti M, Borkoles E, Cockerill I, Edge A. Intervention strategies for athletes in transition. In: Lavallee D, Wylleman P, editors. Career transitions in sport: International perspectives. Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology; 2000. p. 111-30.
15. Park S, Lavallee D, Tod D. Athletes' career transition out of sport: a systematic review. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2012;0(0):1-32, iFirst article.
16. Cecić Erpič S, Wylleman P, Zupančič M. The effect of athletic and non-athletic factors on the sports career termination process. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2004;5(1):45-59.
17. Kline P. An easy guide to factor analysis. London and New York: Rutledge; 1993.
18. Kaiser HF. A second generation little jiffy. Psychometrika. 1970;35(4):401-15.
19. Field A. Discovering statistics using SPSS (Introducing Statistical Method). 3 ed: Sage Publications Limited; 2009.
20. Abdi H, Williams LJ. Principal component analysis. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Computational Statistics. 2010;2(4):433-59.
21. Brown TA. Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research: Guilford Press; 2006.
22. Schreiber JB, Nora A, Stage FK, Barlow EA, King J. Reporting structural equation modeling and confirmatory factor analysis results: A review. The Journal of Educational Research. 2006;99(6):323-38.
23. Byrne BM. Structural equation modeling with AMOS, EQS, and LISREL: Comparative approaches to testing for the factorial validity of a measuring instrument. International Journal of Testing. 2001;1(1):55-86.
24. Fan X, Thompson B, Wang L. Effects of sample size, estimation methods, and model specification on structural equation modeling fit indexes. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal. 1999;6(1):56-83.
25. Cohen J. A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educational and psychological measurement. 1960;20(1):37-46.
26. Ryska TA. Sportsmanship in young athletes: The role of competitiveness, motivational orientation, and perceived purposes of sport. The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied. 2003;137(3):273-93.
27. McCann MA. It's not about the money: The role of preferences, cognitive biases, and heuristics among professional athletes. Brooklin Law Review. 2005;71(4):1459-61.
28. Wylleman P, Lavallee D. A developmental perspective on transitions faced by athletes. In: Weiss M, editor. Developmental sport and exercise psychology: A lifespan perspective. Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology; 2004. p. 507-27.
29. Settles IH, Sellers RM, Damas Jr A. One role or two?: The function of psychological separation in role conflict. Journal of Applied Psychology. 2002;87(3):574.
30. Wuerth S, Lee MJ, Alfermann D. Parental involvement and athletes’ career in youth sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2004;5(1):21-33.
31. Coakley JJ. Leaving competitive sport: retirement or rebirth? Quest. 1983;35(1):1-11.
32. Sundqvist C, Ekström C. Transition from initiation to development in ice-hockey; players, coaches and parents’perspectives: Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS); 2009.
33. Lindner K-J, Johns DP, Butcher J. Factors in withdrawal from youth sport: A proposed model. Journal of Sport Behaviour. 1991;14(1):3-18.
34. Warriner K, Lavallee D. The retirement experiences of elite female gymnasts: self identity and the physical self. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. 2008;20(3):301-17.
35. Webb WM, Nasco SA, Riley S, Headrick B. Athlete identity and reactions to retirement from sports. Journal of Sport Behavior. 1998;21(3):338-62.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Research in Sport Management and Motor Behavior

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb